Justice Black stated: “We reiterate and reaffirm that neither a state nor the federal government can constitutionally compel a person to profess a belief or disbelief in any religion. Nor can they enact constitutional laws or impose requirements that help all religions against unbelievers, nor can they help religions based on belief in the existence of God, as opposed to religions based on different beliefs. The Catechism of the Catholic Church makes this clear. Although he identifies atheism as a violation of the First Commandment and calls it “a sin against the virtue of religion,” it is prudent to recognize that atheism may be motivated by virtuous or moral considerations, and urges followers of Roman Catholicism to focus on their own role in promoting atheism through its religious or moral shortcomings: “He takes a broad view of religious freedom, saying that religious freedom is not just about the right to practice a religion. It is also about the right to have one`s own views on religion, including agnostics and atheists. Some of the earlier coverage of the district court`s decision appears to fuse secular humanism and atheism. In reality, many, perhaps most, atheists do not consider themselves secular humanists (myself included). And some self-proclaimed secular humanists are theists. Atheism is simply the rejection of the existence of deities and is potentially compatible with a variety of different views on moral issues. Secular humanism has many variations, but is generally interpreted as a broader ethical theory that contains components that go beyond the position on the existence or non-existence of deities. Atheism is not a religion, but it takes “a position on religion, on the existence and meaning of a Supreme Being, and on an ethical code.” 6 For this reason, it is considered a religion for purposes of First Amendment protection, even though atheism in everyday language would be considered the absence, rejection, or opposite of religion. In other words, discrimination based on religious beliefs extends to all beliefs relating to religion. There is further evidence of the drafting history of religious clauses, as during the debates the authors rejected a formulation that would have extended protection to atheists.
Madison had originally proposed that “freedom of conscience” be included in the Bill of Rights, but others argued that such a provision would endanger true theistic religion and protect atheists. Madison`s broader language to protect conscience was passed by the House of Representatives, but it was rejected by the Senate and the Conference Committee, and therefore never found its place in the Bill of Rights. Some movements or sects within traditionally monotheistic or polytheistic religions recognize that it is possible to practice religious belief, spirituality and the teaching of observance without belief in deities. People with what is considered a religious or spiritual belief in supernatural control power are defined by some as followers of a religion; The argument that atheism is a religion has been described as a contradiction in terms.  Although there are some atheistic religions (some sects of Buddhism, for example), this does not mean that atheism is a religion. To put it more humorously, if atheism is a religion, then not collecting stamps is a hobby. There is no single Christian approach to atheism. The approach chosen varies among Christian denominations, and Christian preachers can intelligently distinguish an individual`s claims about atheism from other nominal states of personal perspective, such as: mere disbelief, adherence to science, misunderstanding of the nature of religious belief, or contempt for organized religion in general. “Freedom of thought and religion is understood to protect theistic and non-theistic beliefs and the right not to profess or practice any religion,” he said. The Constitution is, of course, a legal document, and the usual legal use of the terms when it was adopted is very convincing evidence.
Blackstone`s commentaries, published in the 1770s and widely circulated in the colonies, have an entire chapter entitled “On Offenses Against God and Religion.” First, there are laws that prohibit atheism and other non-theistic heresies. Religion was understood as inseparable from theism. Similarly, Noah Webster`s first compilation of American English in 1823 defined religion as the worship of God (and modern dictionaries in their lists do the same as the most common definition). Unitarian Universalism (UU) is a liberal religion founded when Unitarians and Universalists met in 1961.  According to the Unitarian Universalist Association, atheists and agnostics are accepted and welcomed into the UU religion. “People with atheistic and agnostic beliefs find a supportive community in our communities. We are pro-science, pro-reason and pro-evolution. Unitarian universalism honors the different paths we all take. Our communities are places where we celebrate, support and challenge each other as we continue these journeys.  The UU also accepts Christians and many other religions who believe in a higher being, but it is not restricted – the UUA says that “Unitarian universalists are agnostics, theists, atheists, and everything in between.”  Some states, regardless of state support for a religion, protect major religions from insults (which may include the profession of atheism or criticism of religion by atheists), including Indonesia. Other religious crimes that can cause legal problems for atheists are heresy, blasphemy, apostasy.
 We first consider his application under the freedom to exercise clause. An inmate reserves the right to practice his or her religious beliefs in prison. Tarpley v Allen County, 312 F.3d 895, 898 (7th Cir.2002). The problem here was that prison officials did not treat atheism as a “religion,” perhaps consistent with Kaufman`s insistence that he is the antithesis of religion. But whether atheism is a “religion” for First Amendment purposes is a slightly different question than whether its adherents believe in a Supreme Being, attend regular devotional services, or have scriptures. The Supreme Court has declared that a religion under the First Amendment is different from a “way of life,” even if that way of life is inspired by philosophical beliefs or other secular concerns. See Wisconsin v. Yoder, 406 U.S. 205, 215-16, 92 pp. 1526, 32 L.Ed.2d 15 (1972). A religion need not be based on belief in the existence of a Supreme Being (or being, for polytheistic beliefs), see Torcaso v.
Watkins, 367 U.S. 488, 495 & n. 11, 81 p.Ct. 1680, 6 L.Ed.2d 982 (1961); Malnak v. Yogi, 592 F.2d 197, 200-15 (3d Cir.1979) (Adams, J., with agreement); Theriault v. Silber, 547 F.2d 1279, 1281 (5th Cir.1977) (per curiam), nor can it be a dominant religion, see Thomas v. Review Vol., 450 U.S. 707, 714, 101 S.Ct. 1425, 67 L.Ed.2d 624 (1981); Lindell v. McCallum, 352 F.3d 1107, 1110 (7th Cir.2003).
In any case, the same legal principles as secular humanists and conventional religious believers protect atheists.