There are a number of stages where all legislation must be passed in the House of Commons and the Senate before it can officially become federal law in Canada. A royal recommendation is required if the bill contains provisions that require the use of public funds. L&HP/C arranges for the Governor General to make all necessary recommendations. There are also local or municipal governments. They are created under provincial laws and can issue ordinances that govern a variety of local matters: zoning, smoking, pesticide use, parking, business regulations, and building permits. The Revised Statutes of Canada are the legislative consolidation of Acts passed by the Parliament of Canada. In all Canadian provinces, there is a similar codification of the province`s By-laws Act. The Revised Statutes of British Columbia, Revised Statutes of Alberta, Statutes of Manitoba, Revised Statutes of Saskatchewan, 1978, Revised Statutes of New Brunswick, Revised Statutes of Nova Scotia, Statutes of Prince Edward Island, Consolidated Statutes of Newfoundland and Labrador, Revised Statutes of Ontario and Revised Statutes of Quebec are the legal consolidations of each Canadian province. They contain all the major issues and most of the laws passed by the provincial governments.
These laws in these provinces do not contain criminal law because criminal law in Canada is an exclusive jurisdiction of the federal Parliament, which has enacted the Criminal Code contained in the revised statutes of Canada. Each level of government in Canada — federal, provincial and local — has specific responsibilities for different aspects of society and has the power to legislate to regulate these areas. For example, provincial governments can enact education laws, while local governments can enact waste collection laws. Both the Parliament of Canada and the provincial and territorial legislatures have the power or jurisdiction to legislate. Parliament can legislate for all of Canada, but only on matters assigned to it by the Constitution. A provincial or territorial parliament can only pass laws on matters within provincial boundaries. If new federal costs are incurred in relation to implementation or compliance with the proposed legislation, a source of funding will be required prior to Cabinet approval. The federal Parliament deals primarily with matters that affect all of Canada: interprovincial trade, national defence, criminal law, money, patents and mail. It is also responsible for the three territories of Yukon, the Northwest Territories and Nunavut.
Federal legislation allows the territories to elect councils with powers such as those of provincial legislators. If the federal government introduces a bill in Parliament, it may involve introducing new legislation or updating existing legislation. There are also other federal courts established by Parliament that have specialized jurisdiction in certain areas of federal law. These courts are the Federal Court of Appeal, the Federal Court, the Tax Court of Canada and the Court Martial Appeal Court of Canada. The Constitution provides only for federally appointed judges. Provincial judges are appointed in accordance with provincial legislation. Unlike the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, which primarily protects individuals from government actions, human rights legislation protects against discriminatory actions by the federal government, businesses and individuals in areas of federal jurisdiction. The Act applies to areas such as telecommunications, banking and interprovincial transportation and is designed to provide an informal, timely and cost-effective mechanism for resolving human rights complaints.
Although the many legal traditions appear similar in that none have been codified, each has very different legal orientations. Many laws come from stories, which in turn can come from writings or marks, such as geographical features, petroglyphs, pictograms, Wiigwaasabakoon, and more. The governance of Inuit Nunangat differs markedly from that of its multi-ethnic neighbour Denendeh, as the various Dene laws of Denendeh differ significantly from the laws governing the Lingít Aaní, Gitx̱san Lax̱yip or Wet`suwet`en Yin`tah;  and, as they are different from those of the Haudenosaunee, the Eeyou-Istchee or Mi`kma`ki.