The cross-cutting theory has been applied to issues such as social order, political violence, electoral behavior, political organization, and democratic stability, such as Truman`s The Government Process, Dahl`s A Preface to Democratic Theory, among others. [Citation needed] Around the same time, several scientists (including Lipset himself) suggested ways to measure the concept, the best known being Rae and Taylor in their 1970 book The Analysis of Political Cleavages. Due to data limitations, these theories have generally not been tested for several decades. [Citation needed] The data are described in detail in “The Measurement of Cross-cutting Cleavages and Other Multidimensional Cleavage Structures,” which will soon appear in Political Analysis and its companion appendix. The dataset contains 128 countries. The Transnational Indices of Multidimensional Measures of Social Structure (CIMMSS) contain 69 new indices for the following dimensions: race, ethnic origin, language, religion, income, geography. The dataset consists of six different characteristics: (1) Cross-sectional definition: The degree groups in a first column are distributed equally among the groups in a second column. For example, South Africa has a low level of racial income overlap because whites have a much higher average income than blacks. (2) Definition of subgroup splitting: The probability that two randomly selected individuals in a society belong to the same subgroup (the intersection of two or more identities/group memberships over two or more divisions). For example, Iraq has three main subgroups: Arab Sunnis, Arab Shiites, and Kurdish Sunnis.
(3) Definition of (bi)polarization subgroup: The degree to which a country is divided into two equal subgroups. For example, Northern Ireland has two subgroups of fairly equal size: Irish Catholics and English Protestants. (4) Definition of cross-faction: The extent to which members of a divided group are divided into groups on a second division and share membership in the second division with members of other groups in the first division. For example, white Australians are highly fragmented among religions and share religious affiliation with other racial groups. (5) Definition of splitting: The probability that two randomly selected individuals in a society belong to the same group. For example, in many Latin American countries, individuals tend to belong mainly to the same religious group, Catholicism (low splitting). (6) Definition of (bi)polarization: The degree to which a country is divided into two equal subgroups. For example, Belgium has two language groups of fairly equal size: Walloons (French) and Flemish (Dutch). Several researchers have written about how cross-sectional divisions are linked to ethnic voting, civil war, ethnic censuses (Lieberman and Singh, 2012), and economic growth (Selway, 2011). [Citation needed] In the social sciences, there is a cross-sectional division when groups overlap on one division between groups on another division. “Divisions” can include racial, political, and religious divisions in society. Formally, members of a group j on a given division x belong to groups on a second division y with members of other groups k, l, m, etc.
of the first division x. For example, if a society included two ethnic groups that had equal shares of rich and poor, it would be transversal. Although the concept has existed since ancient times, the formalization comes from James Madison in The Federalist, number 10.   Robert A. Dahl constructed a theory of pluralist democracy that is a direct descendant of Madison`s transversal divisions.  The antonym of the term reinforces divisions,” which would be the case if one of the ethnic groups were all rich and the other all poor. The term comes from Simmel (1908) in his book Sociology.  Stein Rokkan wrote a classic essay on transversal divisions in Norway.
  In the American Economic Review, Desmet, Ortuño-Ortín and Wacziarg (2017) direct and discuss several measures of the cross-cutting situation and calculate them on the basis of data on ethnic identity and cultural values.  Selway (2011) proposed a new measure for cross-sectional divisions and published a transnational dataset on cross-sectional divisions in several dimensions (ethnicity, class, geography and religion). [Citation needed] The concept of cross-cutting divisions is perhaps most widely used in the field of political science. Cross-cutting divisions were originally proposed as a mechanism for political stability, as no group can align all its members on a unified split platform, but rather must address the members of the group divided among the groups created by other divisions. [Citation needed] The most in-depth discussion of this process is that of Seymour Martin Lipset in his 1960 book Political Man. Anthropologists used the term in the early decades of the 20th century. They brought back descriptions of non-Western societies across Asia and Africa.     Diana Mutz revived the concept in the early 2000s and examined political participation and democratic theory using survey data in the United States and other Western European democracies.   The compressed package contains Microsoft Excel files, a Microsoft Word document, and a Stata file that contains the data, tables, and figures used in the publication. Files used publicly in this collection are publicly available. No affiliation with an ICPSR member institution is required for access.
This data is part of the archives related to ICPSR publications and is distributed exactly as it arrived from the data viewer. ICPSR has not tested or processed this material. Users should consult with auditors if additional information is desired. Principal Investigator(s): See help for Principal Investigator(s) Joel Selway, Brigham Young University Sociologists have used the term, particularly in the subfield of macrosociology. The work of Peter Blau is the best known. .